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Grid processing tackles world food crisis

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As concerns of a global hunger crises mount, IBM and researchers at the University of Washington recently launched a new programme to develop stronger strains of rice that could produce crops with larger and more nutritious yields. 

With the processing power of 167 teraflops, IBM’s World Community Grid will harness the unused and donated power from nearly 1-million individual PC's in a new initiative – the "Nutritious Rice for the World" project – that will study rice at the atomic level and then combine it with traditional cross breeding techniques used by farmers throughout history.
The project can be completed in less than two years as compared to over 200 years using more conventional power of systems.
“The world is experiencing three simultaneous revolutions: in molecular biology and genetics; in computational power and storage capacity; and in communications. The computational revolution allows scientists around the world to tackle almost unimaginably complex problems as a community, and in real-time,” says Director General Robert Zieglier, of the International Rice Research Institute based in the Philippines.  
“While there are no silver bullets, rice production can be revitalised with the help of new technologies. The world community must invest now and for a long time to come.”
World Community Grid will run a three-dimensional modelling programme created by computational biologists at the University of Washington to study the structures of the proteins that make up the building blocks of rice. Understanding the structure is necessary to identify the function of those proteins and to enable researchers to identify which ones could help produce more rice grains, ward off pests, resist disease or hold more nutrients.  
In the end, this project will create the largest and most comprehensive map of rice proteins and their related functions, helping agriculturalists and farmers pinpoint which plants should be selected for cross-breeding to cultivate better crops.
"The issue is that there are between 30 000 and 60 000 different protein structures to study,” says principal investigator, Dr  Ram Samudrala, associate professor in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Washington.  
“Using traditional experimental approaches in the laboratory to identify detailed structure and function of critical proteins would take decades. Running our software programme on World Community Grid will shorten the time from 200 years to less than two years.”
Ultimately, this project, jumpstarted by a $2-million grant from the National Science Foundation, could enable rice-producing countries to become more immune to future climate changes because they can quickly find the right plants for cross breeding, and create “super hybrids” that are more resistant to changing weather patterns.
This research is also important to other countries because the knowledge gained creating the 3D models can be easily transferred to other cereal crops such as corn, wheat, and barley.
World Community Grid is fast approaching its own milestone, which is expects to hit next week, as the grid reaches 1-million registered computers helping to advance scientific research. Each week, thousands of people sign on to this project that has significantly advanced several research projects on diseases like cancer and AIDS. The nutritious rice project is the latest to utilise the grid, and could have a major impact on global health.
“This project could ultimately help farmers around the world plant better crops and stave off hunger for some,” says Stanley Litow, vice-president of Corporate Citizenship and Corporate Affairs and President of the IBM International Foundation.  “People who want to be a part of something big can take a small step today by donating their unused computer time.  Volunteers can personally effect how quickly this research is completed and can make a significant difference for farmers and people in great need.”
Anyone with a computer and Internet access can be a part of the solution. To donate unused computer time, individuals register on www.worldcommunitygrid.org and install a free, small, secure software programme on to their computers.  
When computers are idle, data is requested from World Community Grid’s server.  These computers then perform the computations, and send the results back to the server, prompting it for a new piece of work.  A screen saver will tell individuals when their computers are being used.
World Community Grid, the largest public humanitarian grid in existence, has 380 000-plus members who represent more than 200 countries and links to nearly 1-million computers.
It is the volunteers that help make the difference because as each one shares their computer time, scientists are able to conduct their research faster.  For example, the AfricanClimate@Home project just completed its data collection, and research analysis will now begin.
"The project could not have been completed in such quick time without the help of World Community Grid. The results will help us develop a better understanding of how land surface changes over South Africa affect the climate, as well as paving the way for later investigations of other aspects of climate.”
In addition, the Cancer Institute of New Jersey earned a $2.5 million research grant from the National Institute of Health in 2007 based on the Help Defeat Cancer project that ran on World Community Grid. The FightAIDS@Home project completed the equivalent of five years of HIV/AIDS research in just six months.  Five other projects are now running on World Community Grid, and additional projects are in the pipeline.